An essay by Michael Goldfield, identifying what he believes are the most important issues concerning the CIO's racial policies, examining how racially egalitarian the CIO and its various components actually were; the determinants of how egalitarian a union was; what caused many CIO unions and the CIO as a whole to retreat from their early commitments to racial egalitarianism; and the unrealized possibilities for egalitarian, interracial unionism in the United States.
"Who gets the bird?" or, How the Communists won power and trust in America's unions: the relative autonomy of intraclass political struggles
Review: Civil rights unionism: Tobacco workers and the struggle for democracy in the mid-twentieth century south
In popular mythology, the CIO was a revolutionary union in the tradition of the IWW. In actuality, the CIO was created by those opposed to the kind of working class self-activity best embodied in the U.S. by the IWW. This article by E. Jones, from Root & Branch: A Libertarian Socialist Journal (number 6; n.d.; c. 1970s), critiques the CIO's reactionary role in containing class struggle militancy.